What alternatives do we have to experiments?

Searching for counterfactuals…   photo by Edi Libedinsky on Unsplash

Background Video

Counterfactuals, counterfactuals, counterfactuals everywhere

There are many ways to make inferences but most (all?!?) forms of causal inference involve some form of counterfactual. Take some time to think about the concept of counterfactuals by watching this short intro (5 minutes).

Required Reading

Read Varian (2016) and **Grosz et al. (2024)* (ca. 120 minutes) to get an overview of causal inference strategies.

Varian, H. R. (2016). Causal inference in economics and marketing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(27), 7310–7315.

Grosz, M. P., Ayaita, A., Arslan, R. C., Buecker, S., Ebert, T., Hünermund, P., Müller, S. R., Rieger, S., Zapko-Willmes, A., & Rohrer, J. M. (2024). Natural experiments: missed opportunities for causal inference in psychology. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 7(1),1-15.

Session Slides